Monday, 23 April 2012

Ruby Mutex Reentrancy

This morning I was making some Ruby code of mine thread-safe which is always fun. (I'm serious btw. I frikking love multithreaded programming!) In doing so I came across something that I found a bit surprising.

Consider the following snippet: Think it will work? Let's try...

<internal:prelude>:8:in `lock': deadlock; recursive locking (ThreadError)
 from :8:in `synchronize'
 from reentrancy.rb:5:in `block in 
' from :10:in `synchronize' from reentrancy.rb:4:in `
Mutex is not reentrant. Wow. Ok. Let's try something else...

Let's change that Mutux into a Monitor and try again. Alrighty, let's put on fresh underwear and give it a whirl...

Monitor is reentrant.
Ah, the world makes sense again. If I had to code my own reentrancy I would've cried and hated Ruby a little bit. My love and faith in Ruby remains, yay!

Is There A Cost?

Nothing is free. Is there a performance penalty? Time for some benchmarks.

Here is a little benchmarking script that acquires and releases both a mutex and monitor 1 million times each: Benchmarking results:

                 user     system      total        real
Mutex        0.400000   0.000000   0.400000 (  0.406259)
Monitor      0.870000   0.010000   0.880000 (  0.864888)
Ouch, monitor takes over the double the time that mutex does. That's the trade-off.

What About JRuby

I'm curious, let's try JRuby too. We'll change bm to bmbm and fire it up.

Rehearsal ---------------------------------------------
Mutex       0.571000   0.000000   0.571000 (  0.539000)
Monitor     2.012000   0.000000   2.012000 (  2.012000)
------------------------------------ total: 2.583000sec

                user     system      total        real
Mutex       0.321000   0.000000   0.321000 (  0.321000)
Monitor     1.696000   0.000000   1.696000 (  1.696000)
Wow, Monitor is 5.3x slower when using JRuby!!! Hmmm, I suspect JIT just need more time to warmup. Here's a new benchmarking script with a big warmup: And the results:
> jruby --1.9 --fast reentrancy-benchmark-jruby.rb
Warmup #1/20
Warmup #20/20
                user     system      total        real
Mutex       0.357000   0.000000   0.357000 (  0.357000)
Monitor     0.768000   0.000000   0.768000 (  0.768000)
Ok, that's on-par with the MRI results. Mutex is fast off-the-bat with JRuby where as Monitor will be a lot slower at first then decrease to a little over double the speed of mutex.


Mutex: No reentrancy. Fast, less than half the speed of Monitor.
Monitor: Reentrancy. Slow, little over twice as slow as Mutex.

Wednesday, 18 April 2012

Ruby JSON Libraries

Over the last 5 years or so I'd been away from the world of Ruby. I still used Ruby at work and home for various little things [cos it's awesome!] but that's quite different to living in it, especially seeing its community is one of the most fast-paced I've seen. So when I came back recently and I needed a JSON library, I went searching and found (what felt like) 100 different JSON libraries...

Long story short, I benchmarked them. Feel free to skip to the end of this post to just get the conclusion and be on your way.
What Was Used

MRI Ruby1.9.3p125
ruby 1.9.3p125 (2012-02-16 revision 34643) [x86_64-linux]
jruby 1.6.7 (ruby-1.9.2-p312) (2012-02-22 3e82bc8) (OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM 1.7.0_03-icedtea) [linux-amd64-java]
jruby (ruby-1.9.3-p139) (2012-04-15 b4b38d4) (Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM 1.7.0_03) [linux-amd64-java]
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (IcedTea7 2.1) (ArchLinux build 7.b147_2.1-3-x86_64)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 22.0-b10, mixed mode)
Oracle Java1.7.0_03
java version "1.7.0_03"
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_03-b04)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 22.1-b02, mixed mode)

The following JSON libraries were tested:

Optimized JSON (Oj)
JSON gem
Version packaged with MultiJson 1.3.2

I created a little app to benchmark each library that performs two functions 100,000 times and records the time taken. Said two functions are:

  1. [Writing] Generates JSON for Ruby data structure:
      a: 2,
      b: (1..50).to_a, # i.e. an array of 1,2,3,4,5,6, ... ,49,50
      c: %w[asf xcvb sdfg sdf gfsd],
      d: {
        omg: 'hedfasgdsfg',
        wewr: 34,
        sfgjbsdf: %w[sdfg sdfgsdfgnj klj kj hkuih ui hu kjb bkj b sdfg],
  2. [Reading] Parses this JSON:
    {"a":2, "b":[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,45,46,47,48,49,50], "c":["asf","xcvb","sdfg","sdf","gfsd"], "d":{"omg":"hedfasgdsfg", "wewr":34, "sfgjbsdf":["sdfg","sdfgsdfgnj","klj","kj","hkuih","ui","hu","kjb","bkj","b","sdfg"]}}

If you're interested you can grab the code here:
You're free to read it, play with it, hack it, print it and eat it, make love to it; It's all good.

Finally, these tests were performed on a Q9550 with 8GB RAM running Arch Linux 64-bit.

➤ uname -a
Linux golly-desktop 3.3.2-1-ARCH #1 SMP PREEMPT Sat Apr 14 09:48:37 CEST 2012 x86_64 Intel(R) Core(TM)2 Quad CPU Q9550 @ 2.83GHz GenuineIntel GNU/Linux

Results: First Cut

The numeric axis represents number of seconds taken to perform 100,000 operations.
Less is better.

Linear GraphLogarithmic Graph
JRuby (on Oracle Java)
Wow. Two things are immediately obvious:
  1. OkJson is extremely slow on both Ruby implementations. Whatever its design goals, performance isn't one of them.
  2. JRuby runs YAJL like my grandmother runs marathons.

I really thought JRuby would perform better. Maybe 1.7 will be better. I know the JRuby team expect significant performance gains; I wonder if they've implemented them yet... Let's try using the latest dev version of JRuby 1.7.0!

Also I think I'll try using JRuby 1.6.7 with the OpenJDK implementation of Java and see if that gives better results.

Results: Lots of JRuby Love

[Update 2012-04-23: New JRuby library discovered, see conclusion.]

Alrighty, done. Here are the results: (note: using a logarithmic scale here again) And the same thing expressed differently:

Jeez, it's not getting much better for JRuby...

Ok, enough of this. Let's get rid of the council-working options [hey, Aussies get that!] and just look at the feasible ones.

Results: The Finalists

The numeric axis represents number of seconds taken to perform 100,000 operations.
Less is better.


If you use MRI, use Oj unless you generate more JSON than you parse, in which case use YAJL.

If you use JRuby, you've only really got one choice: json-jruby. You can expect roughly the same performance with OpenJDK, Oracle Java and the latest dev build of JRuby.

Update 2012-04-23: jrjackson for JRuby is approx 4x faster than json-jruby and faster than MRI. If you use JRuby, you want this!!

Monday, 2 April 2012

I Have Blog

And I decided I would create a new blog, the first in nearly 6 years.

And I decided I would overcome the ennui of asynchronous communication with a strategy (!), seeing things with new perspectives won through experience now that I'm the ripe, hoary age of 31.

And I decided I would bless this new blog with an irrelevant excerpt I love from a brilliant saga called Malazan Book of the Fallen by Steven Erikson.

Her finger provided the drama, ploughing a traumatic furrow across the well-worn path. The ants scurried in confusion, and Samar Dev watched them scrabbling fierce with the insult, the soldiers with their heads lifted and mandibles opened wide as if they would challenge the gods.

I don't know why I love that so much, but I do. Hey! I did say it was irrelevant.